From the 1870s onwards, chronophotography allows insight into the realm of movement, which was previously imperceptible to the human eye. Thanks to improved technology, photographs are now possible with very short exposure times of less than 100,000th of a second. Rapid sequences can be broken down into individual images and analysed. In numerous experiments, Étienne-Jules Marey examines the sequences of movements of humans and animals for the purpose of determining the laws that govern them. In his eyes, these laws of movement are those of life in general. However, it is quickly discovered that chronophotography can also be used for purposes of rationalisation. Work processes in factories are examined in the same way as the marching of soldiers. It is ultimately only a small step from chronophotography to film, which simply re-assembles the individual photographs and projects them. With photography and film, the arts themselves become technical. From then on, the new art forms have a substantial Impact on artistic production.